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Within the United Kingdom, the Received Pronunciation RP , an educated dialect of South East England , is traditionally used as the broadcast standard and is considered the most prestigious of the British dialects.

The spread of RP also known as BBC English through the media has caused many traditional dialects of rural England to recede, as youths adopt the traits of the prestige variety instead of traits from local dialects. At the time of the Survey of English Dialects , grammar and vocabulary differed across the country, but a process of lexical attrition has led most of this variation to disappear.

Nonetheless this attrition has mostly affected dialectal variation in grammar and vocabulary, and in fact, only 3 percent of the English population actually speak RP, the remainder speaking regional accents and dialects with varying degrees of RP influence. An example of this is H-dropping , which was historically a feature of lower-class London English, particularly Cockney, and can now be heard in the local accents of most parts of England — yet it remains largely absent in broadcasting and among the upper crust of British society.

Within each of these regions several local subdialects exist: Within the Northern region, there is a division between the Yorkshire dialects, and the Geordie dialect spoken in Northumbria around Newcastle, and the Lancashire dialects with local urban dialects in Liverpool Scouse and Manchester Mancunian.

Having been the centre of Danish occupation during the Viking Invasions, Northern English dialects, particularly the Yorkshire dialect, retain Norse features not found in other English varieties. Since the 15th century, southeastern England varieties centred around London, which has been the centre from which dialectal innovations have spread to other dialects. In London, the Cockney dialect was traditionally used by the lower classes, and it was long a socially stigmatised variety.

The spread of Cockney features across the south-east led the media to talk of Estuary English as a new dialect, but the notion was criticised by many linguists on the grounds that London had influencing neighbouring regions throughout history. Scots is today considered a separate language from English, but it has its origins in early Northern Middle English [] and developed and changed during its history with influence from other sources, particularly Scots Gaelic and Old Norse.

Scots itself has a number of regional dialects. And in addition to Scots, Scottish English are the varieties of Standard English spoken in Scotland, most varieties are Northern English accents, with some influence from Scots. In Ireland , various forms of English have been spoken since the Norman invasions of the 11th century. In County Wexford , in the area surrounding Dublin , two extinct dialects known as Forth and Bargy and Fingallian developed as offshoots from Early Middle English, and were spoken until the 19th century.

Modern Irish English , however, has its roots in English colonisation in the 17th century. Today Irish English is divided into Ulster English , the Northern Ireland dialect with strong influence from Scots, as well as various dialects of the Republic of Ireland. Like Scottish and most North American accents, almost all Irish accents preserve the rhoticity which has been lost in the dialects influenced by RP.

North American English is fairly homogeneous compared to British English. Today, American accent variation is often increasing at the regional level and decreasing at the very local level, [] though most Americans still speak within a phonological continuum of similar accents, [] known collectively as General American GA , with differences hardly noticed even among Americans themselves such as Midland and Western American English. Today spoken primarily by working- and middle-class African Americans , African-American Vernacular English AAVE is also largely non-rhotic and likely originated among enslaved Africans and African Americans influenced primarily by the non-rhotic, non-standard older Southern dialects.

A minority of linguists, [] contrarily, propose that AAVE mostly traces back to African languages spoken by the slaves who had to develop a pidgin or Creole English to communicate with slaves of other ethnic and linguistic origins. AAVE is commonly stigmatised in North America as a form of "broken" or "uneducated" English, as are white Southern accents, but linguists today recognise both as fully developed varieties of English with their own norms shared by a large speech community.

Since , English has been spoken in Oceania , and Australian English has developed as a first language of the vast majority of the inhabitants of the Australian continent, its standard accent being General Australian. The English of neighbouring New Zealand has to a lesser degree become an influential standard variety of the language. Australian and New Zealand English stand out for their innovative vowels: Australian English also has a contrast between long and short vowels, not found in most other varieties.

Australian English grammar aligns closely to British and American English; like American English, collective plural subjects take on a singular verb as in the government is rather than are. English is spoken widely in South Africa and is an official or co-official language in several countries. In South Africa , English has been spoken since , co-existing with Afrikaans and various African languages such as the Khoe and Bantu languages. SAE is a non-rhotic variety, which tends to follow RP as a norm.

It is alone among non-rhotic varieties in lacking intrusive r. There are different L2 varieties that differ based on the native language of the speakers. Nigerian English is a dialect of English spoken in Nigeria.

Additionally, some new words and collocations have emerged from the language, which come from the need to express concepts specific to the culture of the nation e. Over million population of Nigerians speak English. Each of these areas are home both to a local variety of English and a local English based creole, combining English and African languages. The most prominent varieties are Jamaican English and Jamaican Creole.

Most Caribbean varieties are based on British English and consequently, most are non-rhotic, except for formal styles of Jamaican English which are often rhotic. Jamaican English differs from RP in its vowel inventory, which has a distinction between long and short vowels rather than tense and lax vowels as in Standard English. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see English disambiguation. Countries of the world where English is a majority native language. Countries where English is official but not a majority native language. Although, from the beginning, Englishmen had three manners of speaking, southern, northern and midlands speech in the middle of the country, … Nevertheless, through intermingling and mixing, first with Danes and then with Normans, amongst many the country language has arisen, and some use strange stammering, chattering, snarling, and grating gnashing.

List of territorial entities where English is an official language , List of countries by English-speaking population , and English-speaking world. Foreign language influences in English and Study of global communication.

Stress and vowel reduction in English and Intonation in English. Do-support and Subject—auxiliary inversion. Lists of English loanwords by country or language of origin. English alphabet , English braille , and English orthography. List of dialects of the English language , World Englishes , and regional accents of English. An example of an Essex male with a working-class Estuary accent of the region around London Russell Brand.

An example of a Renfrewshire male with a Scottish accent. An example of a woman with a supraregional Irish accent Mary Robinson. An example of a Midwestern U. An example of a Texan male with a Southern U. An example of an Ontario woman with a standard Canadian accent Margaret Atwood. Australian English and New Zealand English. An example of a male with a general Australian accent. An example of a black male with a South African accent.

An example of a woman with an educated Nigerian accent Chimamanda Adichie. Ordered profusion; studies in dictionaries and the English lexicon. Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 26 September Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 29 May Archived from the original on 15 May English is our 2nd language — The Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 January Archived from the original PDF on 11 December English into the Future.

Willams, Origins of the English Language at". Retrieved 15 August Bernd Kortmann and Edgar W. A Handbook of Varieties of English: A Multimedia Reference Tool. Mouton de Gruyter, pp. Word on the Street: Debunking the Myth of a "Pure" Standard English. Archived from the original on 9 September Retrieved 17 July Aarts, Bas; Haegeman, Liliane English Word classes and Phrases".

The Handbook of English Linguistics. Retrieved 6 February Lay summary 6 February Occasional paper — Association for Scottish Literary Studies; no. Cambridge History of the English Language. Ammon, Ulrich November On finding a politically acceptable and practicable solution for EU institutions that satisfies diverging interests". International Journal of Applied Linguistics. In Ammon, Ulrich N. Retrieved 19 December — via De Gruyter.

Australian Bureau of Statistics 28 March Archived from the original on 6 November Retrieved 25 March The relationship between African American and White Vernaculars". In Lanehart, Sonja L. Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English. Varieties of English around the World. Englishes around the world. In Hogg, Richard M. The Cambridge History of the English Language. The Beginnings to In Bailey, Richard W. English as a World Language.

University of Michigan Press. Bauer, Laurie; Huddleston, Rodney 15 April The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Retrieved 10 February Lay summary PDF 10 February A History of the English Language 5th ed. English phonology and morphology". Retrieved 2 April Correlating Archaeological and Linguistic Hypotheses. The English language in Canada: Status, history and comparative analysis. Studies in English Language. Lay summary 2 April Bosworth, Joseph ; Toller, T.

An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary Online. Retrieved 6 March The linguistic structure of modern English. The Routledge handbook of world Englishes. Lay summary 29 March Carr, Philip; Honeybone, Patrick Retrieved 14 March Lay summary 15 March Collingwood, Robin George ; Myres, J. The Sources for the period: Angles, Saxons, and Jutes on the Continent".

Roman Britain and the English Settlements. Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. Retrieved 2 April — via De Gruyter. Retrieved 25 February English as a Global Language 2nd ed. Retrieved 4 February The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language 2nd ed. Lay summary 4 February A History of the English language. Retrieved 23 February Lay summary 23 February Reading in the Brain: The Science and Evolution of a Human Invention.

Retrieved 3 April Lay summary 3 April Denison, David; Hogg, Richard M. Lay summary 25 February Second Report submitted by the United Kingdom pursuant to article 25, paragraph 1 of the framework convention for the protection of national minorities PDF Report. Archived from the original PDF on 24 September Australian Journal of Linguistics.

Retrieved 16 March Languages of the World. European Commission June Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Retrieved 12 February Lay summary PDF 27 March An Introduction to Language and Linguistics Second ed. Fischer, Olga; van der Wurff, Wim Flemming, Edward; Johnson, Stephanie Journal of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics.

The Old English Language". In Godden, Malcolm; Lapidge, Michael. The Cambridge companion to Old English literature Second ed. Introduction to Early Modern English. Retrieved 16 February Archived from the original PDF on 12 February Retrieved 7 February Retrieved 11 February An introduction to English grammar Second ed.

Retrieved 26 February History and present-day forms. Legacies of colonial English: Studies in transported dialects. How many words are there in the English language? There is no single sensible answer to this question. Huddleston, Rodney; Pullum, Geoffrey K. Hughes, Arthur; Trudgill, Peter English Accents and Dialects 3rd ed. International Civil Aviation Organization In which languages does a licence holder need to demonstrate proficiency?

Retrieved 16 December Controllers working on stations serving designated airports and routes used by international air services shall demonstrate language proficiency in English as well as in any other language s used by the station on the ground. International Maritime Organization International Phonetic Association Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Journal of English as an International Language.

Jespersen, Otto []. The number of English cases". The Philosophy of Grammar. Routledge Language Family Descriptions. Lay summary 26 February The survey of the Germanic branch languages includes chapters by Winfred P. University of Pennsylvania Press. About Language and Language Change". Dialect Diversity in America: The Politics of Language Change.

University of Virginia Press. The Atlas of North American English. A glossary of English grammar. Change in contemporary English: Archived from the original PDF on 2 April Retrieved 22 September Lay summary PDF 29 March Book your place on one of our teacher training to learn more about the specification and sample assessment materials including assessment objectives, examination structure and other key areas.

We offer a range of materials to support the teaching and learning of this qualification. View all documents 42 View all Past Papers 19 Subject News Top 5 reasons why you should get to know your Regional Representative this term Catherine Oldham, Eduqas Regional Representative, explains why you should book a free visit to your school We are pleased to be sponsoring the National Association for the Teaching Contact our team We are here to support you in the delivery of the new qualifications.

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So, I've just been set my English Language coursework, and inevitably, it's two different pieces of creative writing between words. Home > Forums > Help > help > English exams and study help. AS English Language Coursework watch. Announcements. How to stay safe online and on The Student Room.

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Aqa english language a2 coursework help. A transcript of the Jonathon Ross show english like a very good idea, so you could perhaps do something similar, like talk about other chat show hosts, and analyse how they talk to different genders, or about how they try to control the conversation.

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Aqa english language a2 coursework help Regardless investigation the language levels used, aim to cover a range rather than repeating multiple times the use of a particular word class. Do not write english the language levels in a disjointed fashion. Completing English coursework is a necessary part of various examinations in the UK in subjects such as English language and literature. These include General Certificates of Secondary Education (GCSE), Advanced Subsidiary (AS) or Advanced (A) level.

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Feb 08,  · I have to write a word creative writing piece for the second half of my English language coursework. The purpose is ' to entertain' so it can be anything from a dramatic monologue to an opening chapter. I'm leaning toward doing a short story, but i really don't know what to do it about. I was hoping to deliver some kind of moral life message, perhaps pointing out a real human flaw to the Status: Resolved. 2 A Guide to AS and A Level Language and Literature Coursework F/F A Case Study Approach CONTENTS Background Context 3.